Panels, Clinical Modules and Workshops

Panels, clinical modules and workshops will cover the following fields:

P 1a Sowa Rigpa Industry

Over recent decades, Asian medical systems have increasingly transformed into Asian medical industries. Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ayurveda, Unani, Sowa Rigpa (Tibetan medicine), Japanese Kampo and Korean medicines are now mass-produced commodities on the global market, and are recognized in their countries of origin as valuable economic and healthcare resources. Indeed, traditional pharmaceuticals now constitute an integral part of Asia’s knowledge products industry and its growing economic power, while their potential contribution to Global Health is starting to be recognized. There is a clear need for scholarly work in this field to go beyond 
Charles Leslie’s seminal, but outdated, framework of “Asian medical systems” in order to productively engage with Asian medical industries as complex, emergent and transnational phenomena.

This panel explicitly focuses on the emergent dimensions of traditional pharmaceutical industries in contemporary Asia. As a platform for a comparative approach and perspective on these industries, the panel aims to draw out and analyze shared and contrasting trends and developments in order to shed light on the phenomenon as a whole. How are people, technologies, materia medica, values, financial resources, policies and different forms of knowledge being assembled in new ways to produce traditional Asian pharmaceuticals? How are traditions reinvented, ownership renegotiated, policies remade, and ingredients reformulated as Asian medical systems are transformed into medical industries? What implications do these processes hold for public and private healthcare, governments, industry owners and workers, institutions, practitioners and patients within and across various Asian contexts?

We invite original papers that offer new perspectives on the contemporary development of Asian medical industries. Contributions may focus on one or more of the following domains: raw materials, pharmaceutical production technologies and processes, markets, policy, regulation, ownership, and property rights. While papers on any of the medical traditions mentioned above are welcome, we particularly solicit work on the relatively understudied TCM, Unani, Kampo, and Korean medicine industries.

P 1b East Asian Medical Industries

Over recent decades, Asian medical systems have increasingly transformed into Asian medical industries. Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ayurveda, Unani, Sowa Rigpa (Tibetan medicine), Japanese Kampo and Korean medicines are now mass-produced commodities on the global market, and are recognized in their countries of origin as valuable economic and healthcare resources. Indeed, traditional pharmaceuticals now constitute an integral part of Asia’s knowledge products industry and its growing economic power, while their potential contribution to Global Health is starting to be recognized. There is a clear need for scholarly work in this field to go beyond 
Charles Leslie’s seminal, but outdated, framework of “Asian medical systems” in order to productively engage with Asian medical industries as complex, emergent and transnational phenomena.

This panel explicitly focuses on the emergent dimensions of traditional pharmaceutical industries in contemporary Asia. As a platform for a comparative approach and perspective on these industries, the panel aims to draw out and analyze shared and contrasting trends and developments in order to shed light on the phenomenon as a whole. How are people, technologies, materia medica, values, financial resources, policies and different forms of knowledge being assembled in new ways to produce traditional Asian pharmaceuticals? How are traditions reinvented, ownership renegotiated, policies remade, and ingredients reformulated as Asian medical systems are transformed into medical industries? What implications do these processes hold for public and private healthcare, governments, industry owners and workers, institutions, practitioners and patients within and across various Asian contexts?

We invite original papers that offer new perspectives on the contemporary development of Asian medical industries. Contributions may focus on one or more of the following domains: raw materials, pharmaceutical production technologies and processes, markets, policy, regulation, ownership, and property rights. While papers on any of the medical traditions mentioned above are welcome, we particularly solicit work on the relatively understudied TCM, Unani, Kampo, and Korean medicine industries.

P 1c South Asian Medical Industries

Over recent decades, Asian medical systems have increasingly transformed into Asian medical industries. Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ayurveda, Unani, Sowa Rigpa (Tibetan medicine), Japanese Kampo and Korean medicines are now mass-produced commodities on the global market, and are recognized in their countries of origin as valuable economic and healthcare resources. Indeed, traditional pharmaceuticals now constitute an integral part of Asia’s knowledge products industry and its growing economic power, while their potential contribution to Global Health is starting to be recognized. There is a clear need for scholarly work in this field to go beyond 
Charles Leslie’s seminal, but outdated, framework of “Asian medical systems” in order to productively engage with Asian medical industries as complex, emergent and transnational phenomena.

This panel explicitly focuses on the emergent dimensions of traditional pharmaceutical industries in contemporary Asia. As a platform for a comparative approach and perspective on these industries, the panel aims to draw out and analyze shared and contrasting trends and developments in order to shed light on the phenomenon as a whole. How are people, technologies, materia medica, values, financial resources, policies and different forms of knowledge being assembled in new ways to produce traditional Asian pharmaceuticals? How are traditions reinvented, ownership renegotiated, policies remade, and ingredients reformulated as Asian medical systems are transformed into medical industries? What implications do these processes hold for public and private healthcare, governments, industry owners and workers, institutions, practitioners and patients within and across various Asian contexts?

We invite original papers that offer new perspectives on the contemporary development of Asian medical industries. Contributions may focus on one or more of the following domains: raw materials, pharmaceutical production technologies and processes, markets, policy, regulation, ownership, and property rights. While papers on any of the medical traditions mentioned above are welcome, we particularly solicit work on the relatively understudied TCM, Unani, Kampo, and Korean medicine industries.

P 2 Reimagining Unani Medicine

This panel invites papers which seek to reimagine the timeline and geographic scope of the Graeco-Arabic medical tradition, and its practice. To date, much scholarly ink has been spilled charting the “Golden Age” of Islamic science, often focusing on the development of Graeco-Arabic medicine in cities in and around the Levant until the eleventh century. The subsequent late medieval and early modern periods are generally narrated as a time of intellectual stagnation and decline at the hands of the religious establishment, which was only reversed with the rise of European scientific knowledge and globalizing medical practices in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. This panel invites papers that problematize this well-ingrained narrative’s boundaries – geographic, temporal, linguistic and cultural – by exploring Graeco-Arabic medical theory and practice. In keeping with the conference theme we welcome papers that take up, but are not limited to, the following questions:

  • What    did    Graeco-Arabic    and    Unani    medical    practice    look like outside of the Levant, in regions from the Maghreb to Southeast Asia?
  • What    did    medical    practice    look    like,    beyond    the    literate    physician-scholars?
  • What    would    reimagined    boundaries    for    medical    practices look like, beyond post-Cold War regional divisions, such as the „Middle East“ and „South Asia,“ both historically and today? What picture of Asian medical practice emerges by connecting more traditional textual sources with the emergent scholarship on material exchange along the Silk Road, the Maritime Silk Road and other Indian Ocean, Red Sea, and Mediterranean trade routes?
  • Was    the    “Golden    Age”    narrative    ever    relevant    to    Unani    (/Yu¯na¯nˉı) and other traditional practitioners who continued use this medical knowledge into the nineteenth, twentieth, and twenty-first centuries? How did/do Asian practitioners imagine themselves in relationship to the original sites of Graeco-Arabic translation, if at all?
  • How can re-writing the history of Graeco-Arabic and Unani medical knowledge and practice challenge conventional understandings of “center” and “periphery” with regard to knowledge production, and what new frameworks emerge if we do?

P 3 The Import and Influence of Modern Western Medicine in China

The traditional Chinese medicine and the modern Western medicine are two different systems of medicine. This panel will explore the importance and influence of modern western medicine in China from several aspects, such as medical education, traditional culture, medical ethics, medical philosophy and etc .Western medicine was known by two routes, foreigners spreading and Chinese learning overseas, especially by foreigners at the early time. Through the establishment of the Church Missionary clinics and hospitals, the missionaries carried out the practice of Western medicine in China. The traditional Chinese practice by doctors walking around practice and doctors being at home practice was challenged; the medical school set up by missionary church also played an important role to spread Western medicine. The medical space was changed from doctors’ home to hospital. The hospital system was gradually established and the new doctor-patient relationship was evolved. The traditional Chinese medicine was facing unprecedented impact by the new medicine from concept of disease, treatment means, the form of medical treatment, medical systems and medical education.

Under this situation, the traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine were in the process from the rejection and confliction to acceptance and imitation, and then to communication and mergence, so that the different systems of medicine symbiotic situation were formed eventually in China. By reviewing the historical process, it does not only help to learn the process of modernization of Chinese medicine, but also to help to promote development of medicine in China in the future by learning useful knowledge from Chinese traditional medicine which contains Tibetan medicine and others Chinese minority medicine.

P 4 New Approaches to Chinese Medical Literature / Symposium in the Medizin- historisches Museum

This panel will be held in honour of Paul U Unschuld whose magisterial contribution to the history of Chinese Medicine needs no introduction. Professor Unschuld was also a driving force in the early years of IASTAM, so it is fitting to celebrate his retirement by convening, at the latest meeting of the society, many of those scholars whose work has been influenced by his tireless dedication to the field.

The panel takes its inspiration from his first and only edited volume, “Approaches to Chinese Medical Literature”, which was published in 1989. That volume, and indeed much of Professor Unschuld’s work since then, addressed issues that arise in translating Chinese medicine. It proved to be prophetic. Issues of translation are very much at the heart of contemporary academic enterprise in the world of Chinese medicine, not to speak of a major focus for international funding agencies.  Since that time there have been intense debates about the nature of translation that focus on issues of standardisation v. cultural translation on which Professor Unschuld has always taken a distinctive stand. Archaeological discoveries since the 1980s have stimulated important new approaches to the study of manuscripts and material culture which have revolutionized the history of Chinese medicine; and our understanding of China as an ‘open empire’, with deep historical connections along the routes through central Asia has also benefitted from this new wave of studies.

In response to Professor Unschuld’s work on pharmacology, a major element of this panel will therefore be on what happens as ideas, practices, but particularly substances travel. Finally, the investment into transcultural, transnational, and global histories of medicine over the past thirty years also allows us to reflect in new ways on the meta theme of ICTAM VII: Asian Medicines: Encounters, Translations and Transformations from the point of view of the reception of Chinese medical literature in the twenty first century.

P 5 Health Promotion through Yoga Science – points for guidelines

There is a worldwide growing activity in the field of health promotion influenced directly or indirectly by Yoga and others. Adult education/University Extension, Government organizations, Companies, Medical Organisations, etc. integrate concepts inspired by Asian medicine and their health promotion strategies. More and more people are ready to do something for their health. Practical evidence, interest of the people and research shows that this will be a growing field in the future.

There were WHO initiatives to understand health in its biopsychosocial dimension (first definition 1946) and to create heath where people live, at the workplace, school, family (second WHO definition 1986, Ottawa Charta). After this the worldwide health promotion has developed much.  Since the UN declared in 2014 an International day of Yoga with the expectation of global health, Yoga has become an important role. Currently, Yoga, especially in the European context, also in America and in India, is on the way to develop from old Yoga to Yoga science for now and the future.

The issues of standardisation, quality insurance, education, concepts, medical research (esp. heartrate variability, muscle use, yogic spinal cord model) is therefore an issue of major concerns, not only from the part of Health Care research, but also from the part of Health Sciences, Psychosomatic/Behavioural Medicine, Pain management, Functional Anatomy, Yoga, Sociology, Neuroscience and Sports. We welcome papers that explore these issues from different perspectives.

P 6 Disease, from history to present

This panel focuses on the differentiation of eastern and western medicine, in views of diseases, comprehension of the interaction between history and medicine, and exploration of the integration and connection between academic research and clinical practice. Since ancient times, people all over the world have struggled with diseases and thus formed varieties of cognitions. Rooted in different cultures and societies, they have emphasized the difference despite the original similarity between each other, representative of eastern and western medicine.

It is therefore an interesting and meaningful task to analyze the difference between the two on their understandings of diseases and explore the process and reasons for their evolutions, either to rhetoricians or clinical doctors. From a microcosmic view, the researchers may describe the development history of a specific disease of Asian medicine; they may also discuss how the occurrence of a disease influenced the history or how the history took a record of the disease macroscopically. It can either be a medical study to explain how the historical record of diseases are applied to the clinical practice, or be a historical research to elaborate how the scattered literature of medicine reveals a true history. From history to reality, and from academic to clinical research, it may also reflect the theme of this congress — the encounter, translation and transformation of Asian medicine.
 

P 7a/b Worms, Demons and Gods: Disorder and Health Within the Body

Indian and East Asian medical traditions envisioned the inner landscape of the human body as the abode of numerous other living beings. Some of these beings were worm-like creatures, some were demonic, some were gods. Some were dangerous etiological agents, others were protective guardians. We know today that the human body hosts an array of parasites; we understand the mechanism of how they cause disease; and we have sophisticated ways of eradicating them. Before the invention of the microscope in the early seventeenth century, only tapeworms, pinworms, maggots, etc., were visible to the naked eye. Yet traditional medical systems imagined that an additional host of parasite-like entities, along with demons and gods, inhabited the human body. Classical Indian medical texts, such as Caraksamhita¯ and Su´srutasamhita¯, attribute a range of somatic and psychological disorders to a variety of demons called graha (seizers). The texts suggest remedies in the form of ritual offerings.

In early Chinese and Japanese medicine traditions, the body was imagined to house a set of spirits with peculiar names derived from Daoism. In some of the traditions, the patients have been treated with medicine. Su´sruta recommends enemas, medicinal drinks, and powdered animal feces as cures for worms. Dietary advice is also given in Su´sruta as well as in Chinese and Japanese medical manuals. Magical or ritual cures have been employed in some East Asian settings as well. In some cases, these imagined inhabitants of the body are diagnosed and treated by today’s practitioners of traditional Asian medicine. For example, some acupuncturists in Japan have treatment protocols for children sufferings from irritability and excessive crying, a syndrome that is still named after the (imaginary) kan worm, which traditionally caused the symptoms in the child. This panel especially welcomes papers that focus on visual representations of worms, disease demons or other beings that inhabit the body and papers on contemporary diagnosis and treatment of traditional worms or demons.
 

P 8 Politically, Correct: Determining Scientific Truth and Legitimacy

The question of what constitutes “real” science, and who has the right to distinguish legitimate from illegitimate scientific practice, is embedded in the political economies of (post-) colonialism and warfare. During the twentieth century, Asian medicines and sciences faced particularly poignant challenges to their definitions of legitimacy that incited practitioners, promoters and politicians to employ an array of tactics for determining and demonstrating “truth.” The political nature of the challenges invited politically motivated “defenses of indigeneity” that are themselves worthy of interpretation and analysis.

This panel thus fits into the theme “Policy, Economics, Global Health and Development.” Defenders of Asian medicines have had to walk a taught tightrope that hangs precariously between the world of denounced “quackery” and superstition, and the world of politically charged invented traditions such as TCM (“Traditional” Chinese Medicine that is utterly modern) and globalized yoga (which Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently called “an invaluable gift of India’s ancient tradition”1).

If they are forever relegated into the camp of superstition or the camp of exaggerated “tradition,” how are Asian medicines to articulate themselves in terms that insurance companies, government bodies and other power holders can accept? This panel seeks to explore the fraught politics of defining scientific efficacy throughout the twentieth and into the twenty-first century. We invite: papers that center on the body as a site for performing political expertise and expressing empirical uncertainty; analyses of the state as a historical actor that not only exercises formidable power but also confronts constrained agency; and examinations of different geopolitical concerns from across Asia, as well as intra-national and trans-national spaces. Papers that cover historical time periods can shed light on current processes, while papers on contemporary issues can illuminate the long-term trends plaguing Asian medicines.

This panel excavates multiple meanings of science and medicine while questioning how different political conditions have scripted and continue to script the making and breaking of legitimacy and truth. 1 Modi spoke thusly in his speech to the UN General Assembly on September 27, 2014 in his petition for the establishment of the International Day of Yoga, which the UN declared in December.

P 9a/b Ways of Knowing and Styles of Practice in East Asian Medicines, 1000 to the present

How do healers and experts in materia medica create knowledge about bodies, maladies, and treatments and how do they assess whether a given idea is useful and legitimate? How do they select from and apply different forms of knowledge in different contexts? This proposed double panel (7 to 8 papers) addresses these key questions by presenting the research findings of the Wellcome Trust-funded project “Beyond Tradition: Ways of Knowing and Styles of Practice in East Asian medicines, 1000 to the present” at the University of Westminster (UK).

We envision the panel as addressing the ICTAM 2017 subtheme of “scholarship and practice.” The proposed panel adapts key epistemological concepts from science studies – “ways of knowing” and “styles of practice” – to analyze how people in various historical, geographical, and cultural settings in East Asia (broadly defined) have sought to solve concrete problems by engaging with bodies, researching treatments, and debating how to consistently achieve efficacy. Important issues include genres of textual and non-textual knowledge creation, the use of pharmaceutical and manual therapies, and the divergences and convergences among therapeutic activities from different settings.

The panel intentionally takes a global, cross-cultural, and interdisciplinary approach to these questions. Furthermore, by focusing on modes of knowing and practice, we seek to understand East Asian practices according to their own epistemological logic. This allows us to avoid conventional binaries that speak of Asian practices in terms of their supposed “traditional” or “modern” qualities. Thus, in addition to identifying and investigating different styles of knowing and healing, we will articulate a new, non-Eurocentric analytical framework with which to understand these styles and their historical and contemporary manifestations.
 

P 10 Methods and Theory in the Anthropology of Healing in South Asia

In the field of Medical Anthropology, it is often particularly challenging to integrate human experience with various, sometimes conflicting, ideas about health and well being. Hence researchers interested in healing traditions have utilized and continue to draw on a range of methods to understand specific healing practices, their efficacy and their entanglement in social and political discourses, frequently working with methodologies from disciplines such as epidemiology, public health, and biomedicine.

Increased access to new technologies, diverse institutional changes in the context of unique healing practices, as well as changing expectations of patients have further complicated the anthropological study of healing over the past decades. In this panel, we propose to discuss new challenges in the research and analysis of healing.

Some of the questions we will address include:

  • How do we study patients‘ health-seeking decisions and behaviors in a setting like South Asia, where a medical system is usually not only pluralistic but increasingly hybrid as well?
  • How do we account for decisions made by doctors and patients in the context of healing in India, where traditional healing practices of Unani, Tibetan Medicine, and Ayurveda have undergone long histories of institutional changes with the result that even within one tradition a wide range of competing practices are available to patients and physicians?
  • How do we study the healing of so-called mental health issues in the Himalayas, South India, and Sri Lanka, where a range of traditional healing practices exist and are known to be effective yet challenged by the biomedical paradigm and an increased focus on psychological and psychiatric interventions?
     

P 11a Methods and Theory in the Anthropology of Healing in South Asia: Potent Substances and Sowa Rigpa

This panel proposes to bring together scholars and practitioners for a multidisciplinary exploration of ‘potent substances’ – the herbal, fungal, mineral, metal, and animal-based materia medica at the heart of Asian medicines. We aim to discuss issues such as the links between materiality and understandings of efficacy, and what makes a substance ‘potent’ in a given Asian medical tradition or setting.

  • How can we approach the study of these ‘substances’ from historical, textual, ethnobotanical, anthropological, medical, ritual, and other perspectives in the increasingly global contexts that materia medica find themselves in, including their lifeworlds, multiple and multi-storeyed networks, and regulations?
  • Who    defines ‘potency,’ and how does this get politicised in contemporary moves to produce and regulate Asian medicines as pharmaceuticals in Asia, Europe, and beyond?
  • Where, how, and why are we potentially losing access to ‘potent’ substances through policies, ways of doing science, endangered sources, or environmental changes?
  • How can we develop more nuanced and multidisciplinary approaches to better embrace and understand the interplay between the biomedical-pharmacological-material worlds of the substances themselves and their socio-cultural, economic, and political aspects?

This panel will examine these and other areas of what makes substances ‘potent’ from various perspectives, including textual-historical, ethnographic, and sensorial and phenomenological angles. Our aim is then also to further explore how materia medica are sourced, traded, identified, compounded, substituted, ritually consecrated, scientifically tested, (il)legalized, and politicized when used in Asian medicines and related healing practices.

P 11b Methods and Theory in the Anthropology of Healing in South Asia: Potency across Asia

This panel proposes to bring together scholars and practitioners for a multidisciplinary exploration of ‘potent substances’ – the herbal, fungal, mineral, metal, and animal-based materia medica at the heart of Asian medicines. We aim to discuss issues such as the links between materiality and understandings of efficacy, and what makes a substance ‘potent’ in a given Asian medical tradition or setting.

  • How can we approach the study of these ‘substances’ from historical, textual, ethnobotanical, anthropological, medical, ritual, and other perspectives in the increasingly global contexts that materia medica find themselves in, including their lifeworlds, multiple and multi-storeyed networks, and regulations?
  • Who    defines ‘potency,’ and how does this get politicised in contemporary moves to produce and regulate Asian medicines as pharmaceuticals in Asia, Europe, and beyond?
  • Where, how, and why are we potentially losing access to ‘potent’ substances through policies, ways of doing science, endangered sources, or environmental changes?
  • How can we develop more nuanced and multidisciplinary approaches to better embrace and understand the interplay between the biomedical-pharmacological-material worlds of the substances themselves and their socio-cultural, economic, and political aspects?

This panel will examine these and other areas of what makes substances ‘potent’ from various perspectives, including textual-historical, ethnographic, and sensorial and phenomenological angles. Our aim is then also to further explore how materia medica are sourced, traded, identified, compounded, substituted, ritually consecrated, scientifically tested, (il)legalized, and politicized when used in Asian medicines and related healing practices.

P 12 Circulations and hegemonies: The Globalization of Asian Medicines

The processes of health globalization have recently attracted much attention from STS scholars. Analysis of the various ways in which biomedical research practices, forms of interventions, regulatory norms or public programs targeting priority disorders have become global have given a central role to the notion of “circulation”, insisting on the need for detailed understanding of the complex interactions at stake when experts, products and tools move from one place to another. There is little doubt about what has thus been gained: circulations are far from obvious and require considerable work; they do not simply displace entities but change them; globalization only exists through localization and adaptation.

One pervading problem of this paradigm is however that it tends to favor the image of a “flat” scene where multiple actors are granted with comparable – if not equal – agency. In contrast, inquiries emanating from historians and anthropologists of health, often insist on the tensions underlying globalization, arguing for the pervading hegemony of biomedicine, especially when it comes to the contemporary transformation of “traditional” medical knowledge.

Focusing on the globalization of Asian medicines, this session will discuss the necessity of articulating the concepts of circulation and hegemony. The session will present studies of innovation processes located in China and India, which borrow from “local” medical knowledge and seek to grant the use of herbal pharmaceuticals with a global status. What will thus be highlighted is less the straightforward domination of biomedicine than the dialectical relation linking adaptation and alternative on the one hand; national policies, international regulation and regional hegemonies on the other hand.

P 13 Historical Encounters and Transformations of Medical Matters and Medical Meanings

Developing towards a global science of health and wellbeing, medicine has to a large extent relied on material supplies. What we view today as “globalisation” in a multicultural world, has far-reaching roots. The common European narrative emphasises the appropriation of materials by the “centre” and of knowledge by “the periphery”. But throughout the centuries, the objects and paths of appropriation went both ways. Local availability and changing chains for supplies impacted what became a preferred medication, a means for teaching or for therapeutic use. Premodern drug production privileged process over substance and mixture over purity, apparently contrasting modern “European” concepts. What can we say about the geography of resonances between earlier healing systems?

Our panel will take a comparative look at the premodern roots of this period’s creation of categories and rules for pharmaceutical and medical practice: How did issues such as pricing and availability, a substance‘s name or form shape the market for effective, precious, precarious or subtle medicinal substances, instruments and tools, of health and healthy bodies? Particularly welcome are contributions that take a combined view at the scientific practices and political and economic paradigms for global trade (between Asia and Germany). Following the trajectory of matters, substances, preparations, and concepts, research leads to pharmacies and pharmaceutical practice. The Ducal Court Pharmacy at Wolfenbüttel provides ample archival evidence of gobal exchange (1576-1716, Wacker 2009). Preparations of plants like ginger, nutmeg, or poppy went into the hundreds, but alchemical knowledge was also present. The documenting data-base reveals trajectories of pre-modern concepts of healing between different cultures, and of trading substances and knowledge.

These data are complemented by the collection of early modern historical drugs at Braunschweig University of Technology (comprising about 900 samples of medicinal substances, among them medicinal substances from Indian alchemical materia medica) and Schneider‘s documenting Arzneimittelhistorisches Lexikon, which elaborates a systematic understanding of early modern materia medica and is based on alchemical instructions, but also stock lists and pharmacopoeas. The panel will comprise 4-6 panelists from the History of East Asian and European Medicine giving examples of comparison and exchange.
 

P 14 Quality of Practitioners and Prescriptions and the relevance to clinical studies

Our panel aims to highlight issues surrounding ethnomedicine, ethnopharmacy and pharmacognosy. The presentations address areas concerned with the quality and authentication of traditional remedies and how these issues can impact on establishing high quality human intervention studies. We provide examples of medicinal plant value chains and how modern techniques, including DNA authentication and metabolomic studies can inform best practice.

P 15 Considering Boundaries of Animal Medicine in East Asia within the context of Translation

Translating concepts and terms from East Asian languages to English involves a variety of processes. Examining questions of translation becomes increasingly complex within the sphere of animal medicine. Pharmaceuticals made of animal parts and the medical care of animals constitute clear cases of the intersecting realms of animals and medicine. Examples beyond these spheres, such as the medical use of animal products, and practices that are common to the treatment of humans and animals are reflective of issues at the boundaries of animal medicine. Animal products as well as medical practices provide opportunities to investigate questions of translation.

The materiality of animal medicine is highly multifunctional, as exhibited through animal products that have medicinal properties. A newly patented form of silk is, for example, consumable as medicine. Moreover, animal waste was not only used in agriculture, but also for a variety of healing purposes. Furthermore, specialty medical practitioners in late imperial China had patients who were comprised of humans as well as animals. In each of these cases, the definitions and translations of terms become intertwined with a number of elements such as their function and the conceptual boundaries related to their use. Translation can include a literal mapping of meaning onto another linguistic realm, transformations, as well as a variety of (mis)/interpretations and diverging meanings.

This panel will aim to disentangle these differing understandings, by considering the questions that emerge from translating terms related to products, processes, and practices that rest at the boundaries of animal medicine.

P 16 Subaltern Therapeutics and Reasons of State

The social and political settings in which “Asian medical systems” flourish today are thoroughly plural, but they are not egalitarian.  The nation-states – China, India, Korea, Japan, Russia – that officially recognize “traditional” ways of treating disease and managing illness espouse medical multiculturalism even as they rigidly regulate traditional medicines within national public health regimes.  These operations of rationalizing power marginalize many practitioners, even as they contribute to the production of resistant or alternative formations of healing. Lambert and Mukharji have called these vernacular, fragmentary, yet vitally important approaches to alleviating suffering “subaltern therapeutics.”  

Thriving alongside the (under)funded and (quasi)legitimate specialties of, e.g., Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurvedic Medicine, subaltern therapeutics oppose the sober, secular, and reductive reasoning of the state’s administration of plural health services in creative and emergent ways.  

The papers included in this panel examine the practical life of non-standard, little-recognized therapeutic specialties in India, China, and Russia, considering how the regulatory interest of nation-states in traditional medicines affects the inner logics of bone-setting, divination, drug formulation, and other vernacular practices in Asia.

P 17a Visual Perspectives on Asian Medicines

Knowledge of Asian medicines is subject to circulation, transfer, and reinterpretation like no others. Regarding this knowledge in motion, research in the social sciences has been the most important reference point throughout the last decades. Since the 1970s, research on Chinese medicine, for instance, has been conducted in fields like sociology, contemporary history, social and cultural anthropology by Charles Leslie, Paul Unschuld, or Volker Scheid, only to name a few.

Notwithstanding the pioneering fields of research mentioned above, do Visual Studies and Visual Anthropology contribute to our understanding of Asian medicines? By what means can medical reasoning, actions, emotions, and the body in the therapeutic relationship be framed methodologically and heuristically? How can the many sensorial and physical experiences be captured, their multiple significations, times and spaces in the settings of Asian medicines? To what extent does the audio-visual experience overcome the potential limits imposed by the written text? Does the audiovisual approach allow for going beyond the diachronic segmentation of complex relations and their layered situations?

These questions are to be specified for the socio-cultural contexts of Asian medicines and their practices, i.e. pharmacopoeia, massage, martial arts, etc.

On the occasion of this panel, in order to frame the making and the uses of pictures likewise, we do not only take anthropological fieldwork on Asian medicines as a point of departure, but the analysis of visual material already collected from a visual perspective as well.

P 17b The Institutionalization of Asian Medicines in Europe: Practitioners’ Trajectories in Context

Knowledge of Asian medical practices circulates in a variety of forms, according to the national contexts they have become a part of Asian medical practices are dependent on the practitioners’ individual trajectories and on social and institutional dynamics.

This panel focuses on realities experienced by key figures that have witnessed the development of Asian medical practices in Europe, as well as on collective realities linked to federations, associations, and schools of Asian medicines.

To what extent is the diffusion of Asian medical practices due to the cultural and socio-economic dynamics of each European country in question? What do the trajectories of physicians and therapists invested in the acknowledgement of their practice tell us about the process of institutionalization? How do practitioners position themselves towards biomedicine and how do they define their area of expertise? Apart from the particularities of each Asian medicine in question, what is equally of interest are the common grounds of Asian medical practices, from the point of view of practitioners’ trajectories, as well as from the socio-political strategies of collective legitimation.

This panel features inquiries from comparative and multi-disciplinary points of view, welcoming contributions from academia (history of medicine, social and cultural anthropology, sociology, political science) as well as by professionals (therapists, physicians, public health officials).

P 18 Institutional Encounters: Post-colonial Predicaments for Traditional Asian Medicine

This panel proposes to explore the postcolonial predicaments encountered by practitioners of traditional Asian medicine as they have become incorporated in or confronted the necessity of working through modern medical institutions. Through the first half of the 20th century, it is arguable that the vast majority of traditional practitioners across Asia worked outside modern health care institutions.

Since World War II, which also marks the beginning of decolonizing process across the region, there has been an ever increasing pressure – a „postcolonial“ imperative – in newly independent nation-states to bring modern institutional organization to traditional medical practices. How have these institutions enhanced, altered, or threatened the development of Asian medicine?

In this panel, we hope to explore this question across a number of different social and historical boundaries. Karchmer‘s paper will address the role of modern anatomy in the institutionalization of Chinese medicine. When the Chinese state began to establish hospitals of Chinese medicine in the late 1950s, knowledge of anatomy became essential to the practice of Chinese medicine, to the extent that doctors of Chinese medicine now measure their clinical work against the truth claims of anatomy. For example, it is widely claimed that Western medicine treats „structural“ pathologies, while Chinese medicine only treats „functional“ ones.

Lai‘s paper will address the postcolonial predicament facing practitioners of other ethnic medicines in China, looking specifically at the case of Zhuang medicine. In the early Communist period, Zhuang medicine was considered to be mere „folk“ medicine, best administered through the new institutions of Chinese medicine. Since early 1980s, the orchestrated effort of healers, ethnobotanists, historians, and administrators have finally achieved state recognition of Zhuang medicine, culminating in the graduation of the first class of Zhuang medicine doctors from Guangxi University of Chinese medicine in July 2016. But these doctors confront new obstacles to the creation of a full-fledged Zhuang medicine: there are few available jobs for doctors of Zhuang medicine and their new  diplomas disqualify them for work in Chinese medicine institutions.

This panel proposes to trace the effects of these and other such postcolonial encounters across the world of traditional Asia medicine.

P 19a Drugs: Trade, Transmission, Translation, and Authority

The aim of this panel is to explore the shape of histories of medicine that take their departure from the material substances that are involved in healing, chiefly materia medica and fluids.

We hope to look not only at how fluids and drugs are conceptualized in medical discourse, but also how (medicinal) substances move and guide body fluids, as well as how drugs themselves are handled and acted upon during the processes of their procurement and production. In short, we intend to focus on concrete practices of acting upon body fluids as well as the substances and things that are involved in healing.

What do such matter-centered histories look like, and what are the novel insights they can bring to the study of medical and cultural history?

P 19b Classification, Procurement, and Preparation: Traditional Materia Medica in the Contemporary world

The aim of this panel is to explore the shape of histories of medicine that take their departure from the material substances that are involved in healing, chiefly materia medica and fluids.

We hope to look not only at how fluids and drugs are conceptualized in medical discourse, but also how (medicinal) substances move and guide body fluids, as well as how drugs themselves are handled and acted upon during the processes of their procurement and production. In short, we intend to focus on concrete practices of acting upon body fluids as well as the substances and things that are involved in healing.

What do such matter-centered histories look like, and what are the novel insights they can bring to the study of medical and cultural history?

P 19c Drugs and the Body: Evacuation, Transformation and Purification

The aim of this panel is to explore the shape of histories of medicine that take their departure from the material substances that are involved in healing, chiefly materia medica and fluids.

We hope to look not only at how fluids and drugs are conceptualized in medical discourse, but also how (medicinal) substances move and guide body fluids, as well as how drugs themselves are handled and acted upon during the processes of their procurement and production. In short, we intend to focus on concrete practices of acting upon body fluids as well as the substances and things that are involved in healing.

What do such matter-centered histories look like, and what are the novel insights they can bring to the study of medical and cultural history?

P 19d Fluids and the Body: Containment, Emission, and Flow

The aim of this panel is to explore the shape of histories of medicine that take their departure from the material substances that are involved in healing, chiefly materia medica and fluids.

We hope to look not only at how fluids and drugs are conceptualized in medical discourse, but also how (medicinal) substances move and guide body fluids, as well as how drugs themselves are handled and acted upon during the processes of their procurement and production. In short, we intend to focus on concrete practices of acting upon body fluids as well as the substances and things that are involved in healing.

What do such matter-centered histories look like, and what are the novel insights they can bring to the study of medical and cultural history?

P 20 Jesuit colonial medicine in South America: a multidisciplinary and comparative approach

The Jesuit reductions of Paraguay and adjacent territories in nowadays Paraguay, Brazil, Bolivia and Argentina (1608-1767) are a particular well-documented area of encounter between Jesuit missionaries and indigenous populations mainly Guarani. We have medical texts mainly in Spanish from these area but also a pharmaceutical manuscript in Guarani, ascribed to the Lay Brother Marcos Villodas (1695-1741) and dated 1725, not yet edited.

When the most important Spanish text on the topic by
the physician Pedro de Montenegro (1663-1728) was rediscovered in the 19th century it was called „Materia Medica misionera“ in its first edition. Different manuscript versions, some with illustrations exist. We also have the recently rediscovered anonymous Spanish Tratado de ... cirurgia, dated 1725 and related to the missions, which represents one major source about history of medicine in the region.

This obviously raises questions about the chosen languages (Spanish or Guarani), the importance of medicine for the history of science in the region, and about considering emotional aspects in pain research and case studies reported in these documents. We still know little into which degree local medical knowledge by the autochthonous Guarani population was provided in these texts. A new field of research in indigenous scripturality will have to take account of these documents even if they seem to be written mainly by bilingual authors, Spaniards born in the region or mestizos who also spoke the Indigenous language.
 

P 21 Medicine of Becoming: Translation between Knowing and being in East Asian Medicine

How do we in the present know what the authors of the classical texts in East Asian medicine knew about a thousand years ago? How is medical knowledge transmitted from the previous generation to the next? How are the multigenerational translations among diverse actors in history eventually substantiated into clinical practice in contemporary East Asian medical settings?

Of the multilayered translation practices, this panel focuses on two subtly discernible constituents: that between practitioners’ knowing and the practitioners themselves. Despite its faintly recognizable nature, this translation between knowing and being is worth scrutinizing since it manifests as the accumulated results of multigenerational translations beginning with the classical texts. Furthermore, this translation greatly influences the actual practices in the clinical settings of contemporary East Asian medicine. One of the interesting aspects of this translation phenomenon is that the discernible distance between knowing and being among novices becomes increasingly imperceptible as practitioners become more adept in diagnostic and therapeutic practices.

When practitioners reaches the stage of virtuosity, the embodied knowing becomes being itself. This knowing being or the being of knowing is often called the master. This panel examines this medicine of becoming from multiple angles, raising a number of intriguing questions. How is the knowing of Pulse Image embodied in the process of learning and practicing? What role does the medical case (醫案) play in becoming a practitioner with virtuosity? How do practitioners of Sasang medicine determine the four person-types with embodied knowing? How does learning and teaching practice between the master and disciples in currents of tradition (學派) lead a novice to become a practitioner imbued with virtuosity? How did healers in Korea in the context of Japanese rule (19101945) continue to be guided by Confucianism, despite the introduction of modern forms of western medicine?
 

P 22 Health Promotion through Yoga, Ayurveda and others

There is a worldwide growing activity in the field of health promotion influenced directly or indirectly by Yoga, Qi Gong, Ayurveda and others. Adult education/University Extension, Government organizations, Companies, etc. integrate concepts inspired by Asian medicine and their health promotion strategies. More and more people are ready to do something for their health. Practical evidence, interest of the people  and research shows that this will be a growing field in the future. There were WHO initiatives to understand health in its biopsychosocial dimension (first definition 1946) and to create heath where people live, at the workplace, school, family (second WHO definition 1986, Ottawa Charta).

After this the worldwide health promotion has developed much. Since the UN declared in 2014 an International day of Yoga with the expectation of global health, Yoga has become an important role. Standards, quality insurance, education, concepts, research (esp. heartrate variability) are a huge field for papers. They can come from Health Sciences, Sports, Psychosomatic/Behavioural Medicine, Functional Anatomy, Yoga, Sociology, Neuroscience etc.

P 23 Encounters, Receptions, Transformations of Asian medicine in Western medical and academic contexts

Asian medicines have become the subjects of formal university degrees in Western medical schools, the social sciences and in the humanities. They are also positioned state legislation as cognate to alternative, folk and/or traditional Western medicines. We invite reflection on how Asian medicines have been positioned and understood within these contexts.

Questions to discuss:

  • Do    the    perceived    similarities    between    traditional    Asian    and European medicines represent homologies between the systems, or are they a product of their common non-modernity, constructed out of common contestation with biomedical authority?

P 24 Policy, Economics, Global Health, Development

The rise of Asian medicine as a major economic force has drawn the attention of politicians and economists, who now seek to claim or defend against patent rights, to claim Intangible Heritage support from UNESCO, or to shore up political platforms based on post-colonial defences of indigeneity.

Questions to discuss:

  • Who is tracking the total world supply of Asian medicines (or is WHO tracking them?), and what are the major directions in which government health policy is moving?
  • How can    individual    practitioners    and    their    representative groups, anthropologists and trials researchers keep better track of and help to shape these changes in national and international health policy and regulation?

P 25 Translation of Asian medicine into English and other languages

Translation is much more than the creation of one-toone semantic equivalencies, but involves processes of reconstructing entire meaning domains within the target culture.  Those meaning domains are not just textual, but emerge as institutions, clinical encounters, practice strategies and political contexts. Clinical, political and philological needs all exert pressures on the production of new translations of Asian medical theories and texts into English and other European languages.

The call for standardization by WHO of Chinese medical terms, as well as the forthcoming 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD11) has led to multiple translation projects and schools of thought.  Similar processes taking place in relation to other Asian medicinal translations, such as Sowa Rigpa.

Questions to discuss:

  • What are the stakes, and who are at play in these complex negotiations of meaning, authority and efficacy?

 

P 26 Chinese, Manchu and Tibetan Medical History

Panel 26 mainly exhibits how Chinese, Manchu and  Tibetan medical traditions had invented innovative theories and practices for preserving health in contrast/ confrontation to modern biomedicine.
 

P 27 Japanese and Korean Medical History

This panel gathers historical research in Korean and  Japanese Medical History. Korean Medical History Part: The Euibangyoochi(醫方類聚), the medical book published at 15th century during the Joseon Dunasty of Korea, is a influential book of Korean medicine. As a medical encyclopedia, this book consisted of 91 chapters, 266 volumes, and there are lots of reference books related on medicine. This panel focuses on the contents of Euibangyoochi and the development of Korean Medicine related on this book. 
 

P 28 Chinese Medicine, Emotion, and Disease in Past and Present

Ideas and practices regarding the relationship of emotion, health, and disease in Chinese medicine are long-standing and well-established from ancient times then on. Recently, although profound changes are taking place in the medical concepts and therapeutic methods in contemporary society, the theory of emotion in Chinese medicine still is unique in the prophylaxis and treatment of emotion-related diseases.

The questions to discuss in this panel will be:

  1. Firstly, what are the particular referential historical, anthropological and theoretical resourses on which clinicians who deal with emotion-related diseases, rely or can rely for practical medical implications?
  2. Secondly, what about the state of the art in historical studies on the emotions and emotion-related disorders in Chinese medicine?
  3. Thirdly, as far as historians on emotions in Chinese medicine are concerned, how to respond to the encounter with the development of emotion studies in modern western medicine, psychology, and anthropology?
  4. Fourthly, how can we feasibly deepen the research and further intensify communications and dialogues between historians and clinicians in the field of emotion-related diseases?

 

This panel will provide a platform for historians and clinicians to explore and discuss emotion knowledge in Chinese medical history with a particular focus on the issue of practice.

P 29 Planetary Health: Ocean Health and Marine Medicine: Survey for Marine Substances

Ocean Health and Marine Medicine: Survey for Marine Substances

Ocean prosperity crucially depends on a functional ecosystem and while important paradigms of infection biology await discovery in the ocean, a thorough assessment of the services and potential disservices of ocean microbes to human health is required for the development of risk assessment and counteractive measures. On the other hand, a number of molecules discovered from marine macro- and microorganisms have been developed into many life-saving drugs and functional ingredients to increase life quality of the society.

Marine microbial studies at Kiel University and GEOMAR as well asmarine natural product chemistry and biotechnology research at GEOMAR Centre for Marine Biotechnology (GEOMAR-Biotech) using the enormous biological diversity of marine macro- and microorganisms as source of novel bioactives have a history of long-standing expertise. This interdisciplinary research involves chemists, (micro-)biologists, geologists, chemists, bioinformaticians and modellers. The exploration of marine host-microbe interactions ranging from plants/algae over diverse lower invertebrate groups to fish has revealed new insights into the influence of abiotic conditions on host-microbe interactions. Particularly by activity-based metagenomics studies in combination with the strong expertise in metabolomics and biochemical analysis, numerous novel bioactive small molecules, enzymes, and signal molecules of cell-cell communication have been discovered. These have provided (i) novel insights into microbial genome evolution, showing that horizontal gene transfer is the most important mechanism by which prokaryotes evolve; and (ii) discovered novel high value bioactive molecules from marine resources, including cultivable and non-cultivated microorganisms. This session organized by the Kiel Excellence Cluster Future Ocean will address the health-related prospects and risks of marine substances and microbes for human wellbeing.

P 30 Western countries adopt Qigong as a sub discipline of Traditional Chinese Medicine

Qigong is a sub discipline of Traditional Chinese  Medicine and requires competent usage by the Qigong practitioner. The “Three Regulations” are focal point of learning: the regulation of body, breathing, and mind. While the first two regulations are easily accessible to our understanding, there is a need to explain the regulation of the mind. Regulation of the mind means all mental, emotional, and also imaginative and spiritual impulses.

Requirements and needs should shape postures and ways of movement. Dissipation of strength and energy through false postures should be reduced and breathing adjusted to natural needs. Regulation thus means establishing a process of learning encompassing all vital functions and everyday routines which is able to generate appropriateness and balance in every situation of life. 
Hence learning and practicing Qigong exceeds health  protection but can develop effects addressing a person’s life scripts and enhancing individual potentials. Making this accessible to oneself requires a longer training  process.

This workshop will use simple exercises to generate subjective body spheres which can create impressions described above. 

CM 1 Ayurveda as a blueprint – what happens when healing tradition travels abroad

Ayurveda is one of the oldest codified traditional systems of medicine worldwide. During the last decades an increasing usage and acceptance of Ayurveda in countries outside of its original context, particularly in Western countries, has been observed. Notably, Ayurveda has taken different shapes during this fascinating journey, interacting with several other concepts of healing and philosophy.

Depending on where and by whom it is being practiced and called upon, it has taken different shapes to different degrees depending on a significant number of cultural, political, economic, geographical and other factors. Due to this complexity, interdisciplinary Ayurveda research is required in all related fields, e.g. medicine, anthropology, philosophy, indology and religious sciences, in order to further clarify Ayurveda´s current status over here and its potentials in countries outside of South Asia.

This panel invites scientists from all disciplines to present their research work related to Ayurveda as practiced outside of South Asia.
 

CM 2 Elderly: the challenge for surveillance through transformation

The life expectancy of people in general is increasing over the time therefore the proportion of elderly population is increasing globally irrespective of sex, education, class, community, marital status or even continent. Elderly population has gone through a rapid transition and transformation due to industrialization, improvement in the health care facilities, technological advancement and socio-economic mobilizations.This need a special attention for elderly population and issues related to them.

Under this major theme many a topic can be covered. The health nutrition and work efficacy of elders, Transformation of family care system to professional care system and it effects. The e q( emotional quotients) and s q (social quotients) of elderly under transforming family structure. Quality of life of elders with medical advancement, financial security and technology advances, Understand beauty and ugliness of elders. Beside this there are many more issues related to elders we can include in this Panel.
 

CM 3 Treating NCD‘s: Science-Policy Interface for Transformation of Asian Medicine: An insight into Ayurveda Combating Lifestyle diseases for Promotion of Global Health

Life style diseases such as diabetes are a growing threat. Even though a number of medicines are available but there is a growing concern for insulin resistance which is expected to affect majority of diabetic population. Asian Medicines can be effective for peripheral glucose utilization but they require strict guidelines. Unlike modern medicines which follow a series of treatment, Asian medicines can be different in their usage as they make a holistic approach involving the body, mind and soul. The drug prescription can depend on body types which can be roughly translated into pharmacogenomics.   One of the best aspects of such system of medicine is the drug enhancement by using multiple herbs which is the drawback of modern medicine.

Given the fact that most diseases are an obscure of culmination of factors, single molecule with side effects can only provide symptomatic treatment. Obesity is a major cause of diabetes but modern medicines fail to control obesity and diabetes alike whereas Asian medicine particularly Ayurvedic medicines can control both of them together. The government should lay down effective policies in the quality control of such medicines through nodal agencies. Modern systems such as DNA bar coding for the plants and organic farming must be given importance. The phytochemicals in such medicines should be identified and quantified and their effect on the patient with regard to their genomic constituents be analyzed.  

Integration of non intervention therapy such as yoga, acupuncture and acupressure should also be assessed with regard to the genomics of the patients involved for cost effective treatment. Once the clinical trial data involving phytochemical constituents, pharmacogenomics and non intervention therapy are collected they can be used for making effective guidelines and policies which would help in deciphering the processed herbs as a food supplement for diabetic prevention or as anti diabetic medicines. The session will contribute for achieving Science-Policy Interface particularly in the Developing Countries.

CM 4 From ethnopharmacology to biodiscovery

Traditional medicine (TM) is used by almost 85–90 % of the world’s population for their primary health care needs and its use is increasing worldwide. Ready-made products from TM, mainly herbal preparations either from whole herbs or extracts thereof, represent large economic factors in Asian and Western countries. In contrast to single substance pharmaceuticals, even if they are derived from plants like e.g. atropine, digoxin or artemisinin, the herbal preparations are usually multicompounds. Due to the global distribution of such products, conducting scientific studies on their quality, safety and efficacy has become a pressing issue.

Such scientific studies can help create an evidence-based TM and facilitate better health care integration and collaborations between medical professionals. Many TM formulations/drugs/plants have potential for developing into high quality modern medicinal products, which may offer valuable solutions in the face of increasing health challenges worldwide, such as chronic diseases, multi-morbidity, ageing societies and ever increasing health costs. This panel is dedicated to the exchange of information and understandings about the current scientific studies on TM.

Original and innovative studies on medicinal plants/formulas and clinical trials involving efficacy, safety and quality of TM formulations are especially welcome. Scientific validation covers all research fields straddling the border between the chemical, biological and medical sciences, with the ultimate goal of broadening our understanding of how nature works at a molecular level. Emphasis is placed on describing the full range of scientific studies including verification of traditional uses, mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, phytochemical analysis and omic-technologies. Logical framework ideas on how to enhance scientific validation of TM, networking and funding sources can be also presented.

CM 5 Research on Noncommunicable Diseases

Non-communicable diseases (NCD) cause significant physical, emotional and economic damages for individuals, families and governments worldwide. Low and middle- income countries are the most affected., with approximately 80% of the world population and a limited ability to provide high quality health care to their citizens.

Health politicians realize by now that NCD need to be approached by conceptually linking biophysical dispositions to the growing environmental issues as well as to ongoing lifestyle changes at an individual level. This panel brings together new toxicological research results with traditional medical practices from Chinese and Indian regions.

CM 6 The advanced practices of traditional Chinese medicine in Taiwan

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been the most commonly used alternative therapy for health care in China for thousands of years. Interest in complementary 
and alternative medicine is increasing, not only in patients seeking help, but also in researchers investigating the effectiveness of various therapies and interventions. Some of its guiding principles are strengthening the body resistance to eliminate pathogenic factors, clearing the stagnant Qi and blood within the meridians, promoting harmony within organs, balancing blood and Qi, promoting harmony of Yin and Yang, and serving the purpose of curing the disease.

We will talk about the advanced practices of TCM in Taiwan, including acupuncture for disorders of consciousness, laser acupuncture in obesity management, low-level laser therapy for chronic periodontitis, anti-oxidative effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge in cancer, and the use of TCM for children.
 

CM 7 Tongue Diagnosis: Lecture (translation, Joan Kuriyama) Rong Liang – Tongue Diagnosis: From historical records to important future prospects

Tongue inspection is commonly identified as one of the fundamental diagnostic procedures within the Chinese medical system. As such, it has a very long history, which can be traced back to the earliest extant tongue diagnosis monograph, compiled during the Yuan Dynasty (1341). The original purpose of observing the tongue was to carefully assist in the identification of the externally contracted diseases, which at the time were closely associated to the theories put forward by the “School of the Cold Injury”.

During the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) tongue observation became an important tool for the diagnosis of syndromes caused by “Warm Disease” and plague. Through this development arose a new path to understanding the externally contracted diseases, which ultimately brought forward the four level pattern differentiation systematology. In Chinese medicine the externally contracted syndromes are typically labeled under the category of acute infectious diseases.

Over the course of several centuries, Chinese medicine developed an elaborate methodology, which links the empirical observations with herbal treatment (formulary). From the fusion between clinical experiences and TCM theories, more than 100 traditional tongue depictions and their herbal treatments have been summarized, standardized and the systematically understood within the Chinese system.

We believe that if such knowledge is further combined with modern medical advancements, it may provide a new direction in dealing with infectious diseases, and also offer an effective and speedy clinical methodology in places where laboratory diagnosis may be unavailable. Through the translation of the classic texts, these achievements can be shared with the rest of the medical world, clinically re-confirmed, and researched around the globe. Finally, it is evident that tongue diagnosis has still much to contribute, and therefore further research may allow it to find its rightful place in the modern world.
 

CM 8 Pain in old age – Drugs, care, touch

“What works for whom how long how much under which circumstances” should be the starting point for the exploration of a difficult situation. The management of pain in the Elderly is challenging. Multimorbidity is the rule, not the exception, and as a consequence there are complex and difficult prescribing regimes. These prescribing regimes limit the range of possibilities for analgesic prescribing – adverse effects on bowel function, alertness, lucidity, renal function are common and the risk of falling increases.  Non-pharmacological methods provide an alternative. They include psychological strategies (attention control, mindfulness) and touch-based interventions (manual therapy, acupuncture). Mind-body therapies like Tai Chi or specific rehabilitation strategies like Bobath training also come into play. They are therapist-delivered therapies.

This links to another important field – how is the division of labour organised?  What is the status for touch-based interventions? How is the borderline between touch as part of care for basic physical functions and specific therapeutic interventions configured? And where do these intersections and boundaries feature in the division of labour, in the practice of care, delivered by many people and many organisations?

The lived experience of vulnerable older people, experts by experience, and the knowledge of experts by profession will be brought together in a panel. It will have a practical and pragmatic dimension by anchoring the investigation in the sociomaterial realities of older people experiencing pain and the medical and organisational responses to this challenge. It includes multiple levels of enquiry, from neurophysiology to care sciences to management studies.

These positions should be considered in the selection of panel members and the orchestration of the discussion.
 

CM 9 Mental Health / Neurology / Parkinson: Treating Parkinson, Treating Emotion Related Disorder

WS 1 Problems in editing medical manuscripts in indigenous languages: a workshop

Jesuit colonial medicine in South America: a multidisciplinary and comparative approach.

The Jesuit reductions of Paraguay and adjacent territories in nowadays Paraguay, Brazil, Bolivia and Argentina (1608-1767) are a particular well-documented area of encounter between Jesuit missionaries and indigenous populations mainly Guarani (and other such as Abipones, or in: Bolivia: Chiquitos, Mojos). A rich architectonical heritage from the Jesuit missions is still extant, the remaining ruins have been declared by UNESCO Cultural Patrimony of Humankind in 1993.

Research about Jesuit reductions of Paraguay has been limited for a long time mainly to religious texts or the linguistic works of Antonio Ruiz de Montoya and Pablo Restivo about the Guarani language most of the Indians spoke. In recent years, however, numerous secular texts have been rediscovered and encountered increasing interest, especially since they have been hitherto largely ignored, given the fact that some of these texts haven’t been available to the public or are part of collections with difficult access. Most of recently rediscovered manuscripts are not yet critically edited.

A neglected field of research is to be seen in the documents about medicine and pharmacy. Our workshop tries to approach these valuable documents from a multidisciplinary point of view: philology, history of science and medicine, emotional and pain research, indigenous languages and literacy reflected in these manuscripts.

A first attempt will be made to draw an inventory of the available material. Most medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts originate from the first half of the 18th century. They have traditional adscriptions to Jesuit authors but a close examination will put this partly in question. These manuscripts integrate indigenous medicine and show us an insight in the close relationship between traditional indigenous medicine, Jesuit medicine in the missions and a popular medical tradition amongst the Spaniards living in the region.

We have texts mainly in Spanish but also a pharmaceutical manuscript in Guarani, ascribed to the Lay Brother Marcos Villodas (1695-1741) and dated 1725, not yet edited. When the first important text on the topic by the physician Pedro de Montenegro (1663-1728) was rediscovered in the 19th century it was called "Materia Medica misionera" in its first edition, the designation was later applied to the whole text type. Different manuscript versions, some with illustrations, of this text exist.  We also have a huge range of other types of medical manuscripts from "dispensatorios", practical recipe collections, examples of popular use, up to the recently rediscovered anonymous Spanish Tratado de ... cirurgia, dated 1725 and related to the missions, which represents one major source about history of medicine in the region. This obviously raises questions about the chosen languages (Spanish or Guarani), the importance of medicine for the history of science in the region, and about considering emotional aspects in pain research and case studies reported in these documents. We still know little into which degree local medical knowledge by the autochthonous Guarani population was provided in these texts. A new field of research in indigenous scripturality will have to take account of these documents even if they seem to be written mainly by bilingual authors, Spaniards born in the region or mestizos who also spoke the Indigenous language.

We thus have the unique situation that focusing on the La Plata medicine we may provide for specialists in Asian medical traditions a valuable comparison on how colonial society, Jesuit missions and indigenous populations coming from an alliterate background interacted in the field of medicine and pharmacy. We will see how a local network linked to traditional European knowledge was formed which outlasted the presence of the Jesuits and together with traditional indigenous medicine inspired a lively local tradition of popular medicine in the region up to now. We are looking forward to learn about research results in similar developments in the Asian history of medicine and pharmacy or other sciences with specialists and hope they may for their part profit from our experience concerning the rich  Latin American documentation.

We are intending to publish the contributions digitally in a repository providing free access after the congress.

Congress languages: English, if need be with resuming consecutive translation from Spanish and Portuguese contributions.

 

As there is limited space available we would kindly ask participants to announce their coming until the beginning of the congress to: Franz Obermeier, obermeier@ub.unikiel.de.
 

WS 2 ZiranGong, the practice of spontaneous movement for strength and balance of physical and emotional body

ZiranGong is a practice of spontaneous movement according to the ancient principles of Taoisme. This QiGong without any given form helps developing body awareness. Furthermore the deep relaxation of body and mind restore self-regulating functions. The practice will be presented by a short introduction to the underlying principles and a time of experience to discover its transformational properties.
 

WS 3 (Clinical Module 2: Tongue Diagnosis) Participation possible without attending the lecture

Tongue inspection is commonly identified as one of the fundamental diagnostic procedures within the Chinese medical system. As such, it has a very long history, which can be traced back to the earliest extant tongue diagnosis monograph, compiled during the Yuan Dynasty (1341). The original purpose of observing the tongue was to carefully assist in the identification of the externally contracted diseases, which at the time were closely associated to the theories put forward by the “School of the Cold Injury”.

During the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) tongue observation became an important tool for the diagnosis of syndromes caused by “Warm Disease” and plague. Through this development arose a new path to understanding the externally contracted diseases, which ultimately brought forward the four level pattern differentiation systematology. In Chinese medicine the externally contracted syndromes are typically labeled under the category of acute infectious diseases. Over the course of several centuries, Chinese medicine developed an elaborate methodology, which links the empirical observations with herbal treatment (formulary). From the fusion between clinical experiences and TCM theories, more than 100 traditional tongue depictions and their herbal treatments have been summarized, standardized and the systematically understood within the Chinese system.

We believe that if such knowledge is further combined with modern medical advancements, it may provide a new direction in dealing with infectious diseases, and also offer an effective and speedy clinical methodology in places where laboratory diagnosis may be unavailable. Through the translation of the classic texts, these achievements can be shared with the rest of the medical world, clinically re-confirmed, and researched around the globe. Finally, it is evident that tongue diagnosis has still much to contribute, and therefore further research may allow it to find its rightful place in the modern world.
 

WS 4 LLLT and Laseracupuncture in neuromascular pain

Laser acupuncture is not simply the replacement of the traditional metal needle but has multiple additional cellular and mitochondrial effects.

During the workshop the basic ideas and different patterns of Chinese Medicine (CM) in some frequent forms of neuromuscular pain will be described. According to these patterns treatment protocols will be presented and demonstrated by 12 channel “Light-Needle”, Laserpen and Laser-Area-Therapy.

In addition the finding of active ear acupuncture points will be demonstrated and treatment energy doses will be given as a basic protocol and as an individualized protocol by VAS. Most effective acupuncture points will be shown how to find once they are active and the way how to treat. In most patients local energy density by laseracupuncture will be applied at 4.0 J / body acupuncture point and 0.5 J / ear acupuncture point. In addition to CM treatment the use of laser areatherapy / LowLevelLaserLight (LLLT) with cluster probe will be demonstrated. LLLT is a highly effective therapeutic approach in many forms of neuromuscular pain. 

WS 5 Do we have to watch treatment effects ultimately during or by the end of healing sessions? – How to compare watching the healing process that shows up in everyday life

Linear and Logical Interpretations of Healing versus Consideration of Synchronicity and Resonance in the Life of a Person Working with clients through energetic healing only partially is represented on the physical aspect.

Here we focus on physical issues via techniques focused on physical health. We mostly talk about good energy or bad energy resp. high energy or low energy resp. excess or deficiency of energy. We can call it the three-dimensional approach of healing and can watch results during a session hopefully leading from condition A with to condition B without symptoms. There are more levels of vibration in terms of energy: emotional energy, mental energy, spiritual energy. We can call this the meta-physical or multi-dimensional approach of energetic healing. For a healthy person it means: not only having a healthy body but also having healthy thoughts, feeling free in emotions, having happy relationships with friends and family, establish a healthy attitude to a job, lead a happy lifestyle in creativity, responsibility, perspective and more...

When healing practitioners give different healing stimuli on the persons energy there are reactions in the 3-D-level (three dimansional) and simultaneously the multidimensonal levels. If it is performed is the lower frequencies of the physical you can watch changes often immediately or in the process of a session. If it is performed in higher frequencies of the multi-dimensional levels the clients experience the effects in everyday life of their feelings, behaving, acting in their relationships, jobs or even in their spiritual self understanding etc.

This means during a session may be there is no reaction at all. Main Issue: It depends not where or what (space and time) but how a technique/method is performed (beyond space and time).

topics:

  • reference system? (basic foundation of a method)
  • diagnosis? (symptoms – resources)
  • techniques? (alignment – focus – holistic approach)
     

WS 6 Digital Workshop on Religious and Medical Sources

This 3-hour participatory workshop introduces digital tools for large-scale analysis of textual corpora in Chinese, Japanese and Korean, and begins the planning process for individual and collective grant-writing for research based in this tool.

By the end of the workshop you will know what kinds of analyses the tool can perform, what kinds of work remain to be done to assemble your own research corpus, and a rough cost and time estimate for that work. This will enable you to write a grant based on using the tool, either individually or in collaboration with others in the workshop.
 

WS 7 Immediate pain relief by acupuncture. A systematic selection of points on distant acupoints can instantly improve localized pain

Systems for combination of meridians and acupoints have been described throughout the history of Chinese medicine. In a systematical search of historical writings and modern textbooks we identified seven historically approved systems. For the purpose of comparability these were plotted on the Chinese Clock;  all of them represent symmetrical patterns.

To extrapolate the possibilities of combinations for every meridian, we accumulated these systems supplemented by a mathematical calculation. This resulted in 7 combinatorial options for every meridian plus treatment on the affected meridian itself. On the basis of this data, we calculated 4-meridian combinations with an ideal balance pattern, which is given when all meridians balance each other. By combining this theoretical concept with the Image and Mirror Concept, we developed a systematic treatment protocol. With this rational and reproducible concept, immediate pain relief can be achieved by acupuncture treatment. Meanwhile, this concept has been verified in a  randomized double-blinded clinical study on “Frozen Shoulder” as well as in neurophysiological studies.
 

WS 8 Onkologie und chinesische Medizin: Unterstützung von Krebspatienten während Chemo und Radiatio

Cancer patients require an integrative treatment approach. Chinese medicine offers various effective treatment options to support cancer patients during their western medical treatment regimens.

This lecture starts with a look at cancer, chemotherapy and radiation from a Chinese medical perspective. Thereafter, the focus lies on the prescription of individualized Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture to support cancer patients. Case histories illustrate the theory and ensure the clinical focus of this course.

WS 9 Creating a digital knowledgebase of Himalayan Materia Medica

Fundamental to the production of efficacious and safe Asian medicines is the careful identification of materia medica to be used in compounding, whether at a small scale or for industrial production. Equally important are issues around sustainable harvesting and sourcing, dynamic and place-based systems of substitution for rare, endangered or unavailable ingredients, and knowledge about the market prices for materia medica.  At the same time, naming medicinal ingredients and identifying visual representations (drawings, photographs) in relation to textual representations can be a source of confusion, not only between different classification systems (e.g. Linnean and Tibetan, Ayurvedic and Tibetan, etc.) but even within one medical system.

Added to this can be concerns about protected or even secret knowledge about materia medica, which practitioners might not want to make available ‚open source.’ And yet arguably the identification of materia medica remains a cornerstone in the production of medicines and in the support of robust, diverse knowledge from which medicine is produced, therapies prescribed, and healing occurs. Such empirically- and textually-grounded knowledge should also be the basis from which policies on conservation, cultivation, and sustainable harvesting are formed. A larger aim of this effort is to make more visible issues of depletion, substitution, and market (in) accessability as well as how national and global drug regulation intersects with local knowledge about specific materia medica.

This workshop-oriented panel aims to attract scholars and practitioners (max. 12 people) to give short (10 min.) presentations on their work and/or ideas on identifying and classifying Himalayan materia medica.

We invite contributors from different medical systems and pharmacological traditions, understanding the Himalaya as a region where materia medica from Tibetan, Chinese, and Ayurveda intersect.

We would like to focus on medicinal plants, with the aim of envisioning a platform by which the diversity of local and regional names can be accounted for and linked, as possible, to textual references within and across medical systems. We understand that existing, if disconnected, resources are already in use across the region, but we would like to use this workshop to collectively envision what a geographically grounded, textually and ethnographically rich, multilingual platform could look like. What benefits would it bring and to whom? What infrastructures would be required to produce it? What would be the limits of its utility?
 

WS 10 Chinese Medicine as a Complement to Psychotherapeutic Treatment – Four Scenarios

The workshop advocates cooperation between practitioners of Chinese medicine and psychotherapists when treating mental and emotional problems. Chinese medical theory admits that the treatment of these problems often requires verbal interventions („reflection-therapy“ - yì liáo) instead of or in addition to herbal prescriptions and/or acupuncture.

These verbal interventions (as well as somatic and or behavioral ones) can be provided by Western psychotherapy. Their effectiveness, however, can be enhanced by means of Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture. An analysis of the problems encountered in the context of psychotherapy has led to the formulation of four different adjunctive treatment strategies which can be put into practice by applying Chinese herbal medicine or acupuncture and which will be presented in the workshop along with related case histories.
 

WS 11 The effectiveness of external application of Chinese herbs after sports injuries: A chance to improve public reception of Asian medicine and to support fund raising for scientific research

External application of Chinese herbs has always been a treatment option mentioned in classical textbooks of traditional Chinese medicine. Nowadays it is still a standard therapy in case of fractures and soft tissue injuries applied in traditional chinese orthopedic hospitals all over China. Contrarily to western countries, where the excellent effects of topical application of Chinese herbs are not well known and where still only a simple RICE schema (Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation) is applied.

Clinical studies, personal long term experience and the results of an european survey of 276 patients with soft-tissue injury treated with a herbal pack for acute trauma indicated that the rehabilitation time after trauma can be reduced up to 50%.

Recent examples during Tour de France, at Olympic games in Rio and in NBA League showed that if those surprising TCM treatment results are obtained in professional sports, newspapers and mass media discuss it, which helps to increase acceptance in public and in politics and to raise funds for further scientific research.
 

WS 12 Schädelakupunktur nach Yamamoto

Schädelakupunktur nach Yamamoto (YNSA): Sie werden in diesem Seminar die Möglichkeiten der Schädelakupunktur nach Yamamoto lernen und wie Sie diese direkt anwenden. Nach dem Kurs sind Sie in der Lage, mehrere Krankheitsbilder in Ihrer Praxis direkt zu behandeln. Zudem vermittelt Ihnen Dr. Zeise-Süss die neu entdeckten YNSA-Punkte und deren Anwendung und gibt Ihnen ein Update Ihrer Forschungsergebnisse (Wirksamkeit der Schädelakupunktur und Nachweis durch Laborergebnisse).

Kursinhalt

  • Entwicklung der YNSA
  • Vermitteln der YNSA-Grundkentnisse
  • Basispunkte
  • Sinnesorganpunkte
  • Y-Punkte
  • Halsdiagnostik
  • Neue Punkte (ZS-Punkt)
  • Klinische Studien
  • Neueste Forschungsergebnisse    

Es werden Grundkenntnisse der TCM vorausgesetzt.

 

“Scalp acupuncture according to Yamamoto (YNSA): In this seminar, you will learn how to work with scalp acupuncture according to Yamamoto and how to apply it directly. After the course, you will be able to handle several diseases directly in your practice. In addition, Dr. Zeise-Süss will show the newly discovered YNSA points and their application and gives you an update of her new research results (the efficacy of scalp  acupuncture can be confirmed by labtest).

The workshop contents:

  • Development of YNSA
  • YNSA basics
  • basis points
  • sensory organ points
  • Y points
  • Neck diagnosis
  • New points (ZS point)
  • Clinical studies 
  • Latest research results

Basic knowledge of TCM is required.

Impressions: Welcome to Kiel University!

Trailer ICTAM IX, 2017

  • Trailer for ICTAM - International Congress on Traditional Asian Medicines in Kiel, 06.-12.08. 2016 from Hannah Bittner on Vime